Country of nine climates
The nature of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is located on western coast of the Caspian Sea in the eastern part of the South Caucasus. This is incredibly beautiful region of unique natural contrasts: here are 9 of the 11 main types of the globe climate represented - from subtropics to alpine meadows in highlands; Here you can observe all the four seasons at the same time: the lush vegetation of the humid subtropics is combined with the eternal snows and glaciers of Shakhdag, Murovdag; forests of Gabala, full of spring scents, with hot steppes, such as the Mil, Mugan, Shirvan; the fog with rain over tea and citrus plantations at the foothills of the Talish ridge - with the warm gilavar and impetuous Khasri of Absheron.
There are two relief forms predominating here: highlands and lowlands. Plain relief expands to the east. The most extensive is the Kura-Arak lowland. It’s divided into Ganja, Garabagh, Mil, Shirvan, Mugan, Salyan and South-East Shirvan plains. The maximum mountain heights are located within the Main Caucasian Ridge: the peak is located on the top of Bazarduziu - 4466 m.
The land of Azerbaijan is densely carved by numerous mountain rivers, many of which form noisy waterfalls echoing in the mountains: Afurdzhinsky (the Velvelichai River), Girintovsky and Sarygunei (the Kishchay River), Ilisuynsky (Gurmukhchay River), Myghinsky (Damiraparanchay River) and the others.
The nature of Azerbaijan - in some places wild, deserted, marked by relict forests - presents endless surprises to the tourists. The vegetation world of Azerbaijan is also rich and diverse. It resembles a huge national carpet by its brightness and abundance of colors. There are more than 4,100 species of plants, including endemic plants (Talysh lily, Garabagh tulip, Caspian saffron, Camillian iris, etc.).
The real decoration of the Azerbaijani land are its mountain and plain lakes: Tufan (Greater Caucasus), Alagellary, Geigel, Maralgel, Zaligel, Karagel (Small Caucasus). In total, there are about 250 lakes.
The fauna of Azerbaijan is also various and saturated: here live more than 12 thousand species of animals. There are dzherans, wild boars, wolves, foxes, hares, nutria, pheasants, ducks, coots (kashkaldaks), sultan chickens (sultanas) settled on the lowland areas. Typical inhabitants of low and middle mountains are deer, roe deer, wild boars, brown Caucasian bears, lynxes, hyenas, wolves, leopards. There are bezoar ibex, mouflons, tours, inhabited In the highlands of the country and regarding birds there are pheasants, partridges, ceckpits, turachi, Caspian ulars, and black Caucasian grouses.
The country's territory is tilted to the Caspian Sea, where all the rivers of Azerbaijan flow. Some of them flow into the main river of the republic - Kura, and others - into Araz (the largest tributary of Kura). The Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world (about 400 km² of water surface). It is unique in its origin and bioresources.
There are sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, beluga, salmon, kutum, shmaya, herring, lamprey, catfish, pike, zerek and other fish inhabiting in the Caspian Sea and river estuaries, flowing in it.